Mitochondria are organelles found in the body’s cells (including skin cells) that generate energy in the form of ATP. They are known as the powerhouses of cells due to this important function. Interestingly, they are thought to originate from bacteria-related cells because of their striking similarity to bacteria (including mitochondrial DNA that is very similar to bacterial DNA) and the belief that they appear to have developed a symbiotic relationship with higher order cells, such as mammalian cells.
In addition to generating energy, mitochondria play critical roles in other cellular processes including:
- The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
- The regulation of cellular metabolism
- Calcium signaling
- Programmed cell death (apoptosis)
- Wound healing
Damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria have been associated with aging and various diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Aged, damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria produce greater amounts of ROS that may lead to oxidative stress. Skin cells are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to exposure to many irritants including, UV radiation, pollution, or harmful chemicals.
In contrast, when mitochondria are healthy and ROS levels are normal, ROS are important for regulating cellular signaling and normal processes such as wound healing. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that mitochondria are important regulators of skin physiology. Mitochondria metabolism regulates keratinocyte differentiation and mitochondria are also involved in melanocyte function. For these reason as well as many others, protecting mitochondria in skin is essential.
Oleuropein, a potent antioxidant from olives and olive leaves found in Viniferamine® skin care protects mitochondria by decreasing oxidative stress.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a powerful antioxidant from green tea also found in Viniferamine® skin care products, has been shown to suppress radiation-induced damage to human epidermal keratinocyte mitochondria by turning on the important antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).
Resveratrol, an important antioxidant from grapes or grapevines also found in Viniferamine® skin care products, has been shown to suppress macrophage mitochondrial damage.
Polyphenol antioxidants such as EGCG and resveratrol activate the critical protein factor, FOXO3a that turns on important antioxidant enzymes including MnSOD.
Another important antioxidant found in Viniferamine® skin care products, melatonin, prevents mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative damage by preserving an important lipid found in mitochondria called cardiolipin. Cardiolipin abnormalities have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction of pathological conditions as well as aging.
It’s good to know that the beneficial antioxidant ingredients found in Viniferamine® skin care products protect the powerhouses of skin cells that are critical for skin health and wound healing.
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